The Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir came into existence on 31-10-2019 in terms of Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act 2019. The Union Territory of Jammu & Kashmir has been carved out of the Erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir that came into being as a single political and geographical entity following the Treaty of Amritsar between the British Government and Mahahraja Gulab Singh signed on March 16, 1846. The Treaty handed over the control of the Kashmir to the Dogra rulers of Jammu who were already controlling the Ladakh region. Thus, the new region comprising three distinct regions of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh was formed with Maharaja Gulab Singh as its founder ruler.
The UT is bounded by Ladakh in the East and North and Pakistan in the West. The Southern boundry is contiguous with Himachal Pradesh and Gurdaspur District of Punjab. Its thre principal rivers are, the Jhelum, the Chenab and the Ravi.The J&K with its summer and winter capitals at Srinagar and Jammu, respectively, consists of 20 districts, 10 in Kashmir Valley and 10 in Jammu Division. It has three geographical zones of (i) Sub-mountain and semi-mountain plain known as kandi or dry belt, (ii) the Shivalik ranges, (iii) the high mountain zone constituting the Kashmir valley, Pir Panchal range and its off-shoots including Doda, Poonch and Rajouri districts and part of Kathua and Udhampur districts.The climate varies from tropical in the Jammu plains to semi-arctic cold in Kashmir and Jammu mountainous tracts having temperate climate conditions. The annual rainfall also varies from region to region with 650.5 mm in Srinagar and 1115.9 mm in Jammu. The J&K is geologically constituted of rocks varying from the oldest period of the earth's history to the youngest present day river and lake deposits.
The UT of J&K is rich in art, culture and history and in archaeological and historical sites reflecting a glorious past. While Kashmir is said to have the oldest recorded history in the world. Jammu too finds mention in the ancient history.
Jammu and Kashmir was one of the 565 princely States of India on which the British paramountcy lapsed at the stroke of mid-night on August 15, 1947. On Independence from the British yoke, the State of Jammu and Kashmir, then ruled by Maharaja Hari Singh, elected to accede to the Union of India by signing an Instrument of Accession. The Instrument of Accession was executed and signed by the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, Maharaja Hari Singh and the Governor General of India, Lord Mountbatton on October 26/27, 1947.
The Maharaja announced a popular interim government on March 5, 1948 and appointed Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah as the Prime Minister. On June 20, 1949 when Maharaja Hari Singh had to leave the State for reasons of health, he appointed Yuvraj Karan Singh, his son, as Regent through a Proclamation issued on June 20, 1949.
On January 26, 1950, when India became a Republic, Article 370 of the Constitution of India conferred a special status on the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Regent, as Head of the State, issued a Proclamation on May 1, 1951 directing formation of a Constituent Assembly of elected members. The Constituent Assembly after the Delhi Agreement elected the Regent, Yuvraj Karan Singh, as Sadar-i-Riyasat of the State on August 19, 1952. On May, 1954, the President of India issued the Constitution Order 1954-CO 48 dated 14-5-1954 under Article 370 extending the Constitution of India to the State with exception and modifications contained in the order.
On November 17, 1956, the State Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir declaring the State to be an integral part of the Union of India. While the Constitution was adopted on January 26, 1957, Sections 3 & 4 of the Constitution came into force with immediate effect.
By the 6th amendment to the State Constitution adopted on March 28, 1965, the Sadar-i-Riyasat was re-designated as the Governor and the Prime Minister of the State as the Chief Minister.
The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation act 2019 was passed on 9th of August 2019 and the state was reorganised into two Union Territories namely Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir and Union territory of Ladakh.